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Spanish Conjunctions

     

A conjunction is a word that creates a relation among words, phrases, clauses or sentences. Conjunctions have no meaning by themselves, they only relate.

Some conjunctions in Spanish have different meanings, therefore it is possible to find them performing different functions.


Conjunciones Copulativas.

    These conjunctions coordinate two or more words that have the same function. They can put together sentences too. These conjunctions are:

                 y / and
                 e /
and
                 ni
/
neither, nor.

                Examples:
          Compré musica rusa y turca. / I bought Russian and Turkish music.
          Tenía verguenza e ira. / He was ashamed and angry.
          Vió el reloj y recordó su cita. / He saw the watch and remembered his appointment.
          No comió ni bebió agua / He did not eat or drink water.

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Conjunciones Disyuntivas.

       These conjunctions put together words or sentences to express different or conflicting alternatives. These conjunctions are:

                 u / or
                 o / or, either.

                Examples:
            Tú o él cocinarán. / Either you or he will cook.
            O  nos ayudas o te vas. / Either you help us or you leave.
            Uno u otro camino te lleva. / Either way will take you.

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Conjunciones Distributivas.

    These conjunctions put together words or sentences to express different options.
These conjunctions are:

                ya...ya / now...now
                bien...bien / either...or
                ora ... ora /   
                será ... ora /
                fuera ... fuera / either...or

                Examples:
          Comerás ya en el comedor, ya en la cocina./ You will eat now in the dining room, now in the kitchen.
          Respondes bien con frialdad, bien con pasión./ You answer either with coldness, or with passion.
           Fuera en frío, fuera en calor, el motor funcionaba bien./ Either in the cold or in the heat, the engine worked OK.

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Conjunciones Adversativas.

     These conjunctions indicate opposition among the elements that they join.
These conjunctions are:

                Pero / but
                Mas / however   
                Sino / but, rather
                Sin embargo / nevertheless, however
                No obstante / regardless 
                Antes bien / on the contrary
                Con todo / even so
                Más bien que / rather than 
                Fuera de / apart from
                Excepto / except
                Salvo / Except (for)
                    Menos
/ but
                Más que / even if, however much
                Antes / before
                Que no

                Examples:

        Quería un helado, pero no tenía dinero. / I wanted an ice cream, but I did not have enough money.
        Él no podía descansar sino trabajar mas. / He could not rest, he would rather work harder.
        Salgo a correr todos los días, excepto cuando llueve. / I jog every day, except when it rains. 

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Conjunciones Completivas o Complementantes

        These conjunctions subordinate one sentence to another. The most common is que / that.

                Examples:

         Soñé que volaba. / I dreamed that I was flying.
         Díle que no me gusta. / Tell him that I don't like it.

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Conjunciones Causales

       These conjunctions always subordinate one sentence to another. The most common are:

                Porque / because
                Pues / 
because
                Ya que /
since, seeing that
                Puesto que /
although, since, as long as
                Pues que /
since
                Supuesto que

                Que /
that, because
                De que / 
of
                Como /
as, since 
                Por razón de que /
for the reason that
                En vista de que / 
                Dado que /
given that
                Por cuanto /
in as much as
                A causa de que / 
because
                Por lo cual / 
therefore

                Examples:

         Sabían que la amabas ya que la besaste. / They knew you loved her since you kissed her.
         Puesto que no veniste, tuve que estudiar solo. / Since you did not come, I had to study by myself.
         Como tenía dinero, todos lo seguían. / Since he had money, everybody followed him.

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Conjunciones Consecutivas

        These conjunctions express the logical result of any action. The most common are the following ones:

                Luego / then
                Así pues / 
therefore
                Conque / 
                Así que / 
As soon as, after, that is why
                Por consiguiente / 
therefore
                Por tanto /
therefore
                Por lo tanto /
therefore
                Pues / 
then
                De manera que / 
in such a way that
                De modo que /
so that, in such a way that
                Que /
that, because

                    Examples:

         ¿Quieres dinero?, pues trabaja!. / Do you want money? Then work!
         Se cayó la niña, así que la llevaron al doctor. / The girl fell down, that's why she was taken to  the doctor.
         Ella no comprendía, por lo tanto se fué. / She did not understand, therefore she left.

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Conjunciones Condicionales

        They express the condition that must be met to realize what is indicated in the principal sentence. The most common are:

                   Si / if
                   Como /
as, since
                   En caso de que /
in case that.
                   Siempre que /
whenever, provided that.
                   Con tal de que / 

                    Examples:

          Como no venías, tuvimos que partir. / Since you didn't come, we had to leave.
          En caso de que pierdas las llaves, aquí tienes otras / In case that you lose the keys, here you have other ones.
          Comeremos conejo siempre que lo cazemos / We will eat rabbit provided that we will hunt it.

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Conjunciones Finales

        These conjunctions introduce a sentence that will realize the main verb action; such as:

                 Para que / in order that, so that.
                A fin de que / so that, in order that.
                Con el objeto de que / with the purpose of.
                Con el fin de que / with the purpose of.

                 Examples:    

           Te doy dinero para que no olvides mis cosas. / I am giving you money so that you won´t forget my stuff.
           Trabajó duro con el fin de que pudiera comprarse un coche. / He worked hard with the purpose of buying a car.

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Conjunciones Concesivas

        They introduce a sentence that expresses difficulty in fulfilling what the main sentence requires. This difficulty does not always avoid the main action fulfillment. The most common ones are:

               Aunque / although
                Por más que / 
                Si bien / 
                Aun cuando /
even if
                A pesar de que / 
despite
                Así / 
                Como /
                Siquiera /
though, although,  whether, or
                Ya que /
since, seeing that
                Bien que/ 
                Mal que /

                Examples:    

                  Aunque le disgustaba bailar, bailó toda la noche / Although he didn't like to dance, he danced all night long.
                  No hemos ahorrado lo suficiente  a pesar de que nos hemos esforzado /  We have not saved enough, despite the fact we have tried very hard.

    

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